California Effect

The California effect, named after the US-American state that has played a frontrunner role in raising regulatory standards in the United States, refers to a race-to-the-top situation where one or more countries export or impose their own (stricter) standards upon their trading partners 1).

Princen, Sebastiaan. (1999) "The California Effect in the EC’s External Relations: A Comparison of the Leghold Trap and Beef-Hormone Issues Between the EC and the U.S. and Canada", Paper prepared for the ECSA Sixth Biennial International Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, 2-5 June 1999. (Unpublished).